At 9:22 a.m. on June 17, my country used the Long March 2 F carrier rocket at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center to launch the Shenzhou 12 manned spacecraft with 3 astronauts into the sky, and 6.5 hours later. Successfully docked with the core cabin.
Many viewers who watched the live TV broadcast could not help but feel puzzled by the various passwords issued by the staff in the command hall. For example, about 50 seconds after the rocket took off, they heard “Dongfeng Optical USB Radar Tracking Normal” and “Telemetry Signal Normal”. So, what do they mean by USB and telemetry?
USB: Originated from the American “Apollo Moon Landing”
USB originally originated from the US space launch mission, namely the unified S-band. Space launch requires the measurement and control of rockets in flight. Manned space launch is related to the safety of astronauts, and its requirements are higher. In the early days, space launch missions used a variety of different wavebands to perform measurement and control tasks, which caused problems such as complex equipment, heavy loads and poor electromagnetic compatibility, as well as short-term shortcomings.
In the 1960s, in order to ensure the success of the Apollo manned mission to the moon, the United States proposed a system for uniformly performing measurement and control tasks in the S-band. Therefore, a unified S-band (USB) measurement and control network was established and manned on the Apollo moon. The plan was a big success, and later this kind of measurement and control network became an international standard and was promoted.
When my country implemented the 921 manned space project, it also built its own USB measurement and control system. These measurement and control networks include numerous measurement and control stations built in the country and the Yuanwang measurement and control ship deployed on the ocean to measure the flight status of rockets and spacecraft in real time. .
Telemetry: Tracking the rocket all the way
Telemetry is the translation of English Telemetry. It cannot be understood as remote control and measurement according to the Chinese meaning. This word is a combination of two Greek roots, which translates to remote measurement.
Simply put, telemetry is an automatic communication process, through which the rocket measurement data that cannot be directly accessed can be transmitted to the measurement and control station, so as to realize the measurement and monitoring of the rocket.
After the Long March 2 F rocket was launched into the air, the ground crew could not measure the various data inside the rocket, and could only use the telemetry system to transmit the data obtained by the various sensors on the rocket back to the ground for monitoring and analysis by the technicians.
After the rocket took off, the telemetry tracking was normal all the way. If the rocket had problems in flight, the telemetry data was almost the only clue.
Stable tracking is not easy From the launch of the rocket to the final announcement of the successful launch of the Shenzhou 12 manned spacecraft, from time to time the commands of “Jiuquan tracking is normal”, “Dongfeng tracking is normal”, and Weinan, Taiyuan, Tianjin, and Qingdao are tracking normal. Although these passwords are plain and unremarkable, they are the result of the efforts of countless Chinese astronauts. my country’s Aerospace USB measurement and control network has deployed a large number of measurement and control stations on the ground. These measurement and control stations are equipped with optical and radar tracking equipment to track rockets in flight in real time. In the live broadcast, you see the image of the rocket flying, which is the optical tracking picture provided by the photoelectric tracker. It is similar in principle to the automatic tracking telescope, but the performance is much more advanced. The tracking radar uses a narrow beam to track the target, and the rocket is always within a few tenths of the radar beam to be tracked stably and obtain accurate data. The optical radar tracking is normal, indicating that the optical and radar of the measurement and control station have locked the rocket stably and effectively, and the flight process is under control. Applause sent to mission critical nodes The launch mission of the Shenzhou 12 manned spacecraft involves both the tempering of the rocket and the test of the spacecraft. Careful netizens will find that there were many applauses in the flight control hall during the live broadcast. The first applause occurred when the ship’s arrows were successfully separated, the second time was when the spacecraft’s sun wing was deployed normally, and the last time was when the mission was announced successfully. Ship-arrow separation and solar wing deployment are two hurdles that must be crossed for a successful mission. Although the reliability and safety of the Long March 2 F rocket have reached 0.97 and 0.997 respectively, the manned launch must be foolproof, and no one can truly rest assured until the last moment. Seeing the success of the separation of the ship and the arrow in the live broadcast means that the rocket has retired and completed its mission. The applause is well deserved. The test of the Shenzhou series spacecraft during launch is relatively simple. The main task is to deploy the solar wing to provide power to the spacecraft. However, many international spacecraft fail to deploy the solar wing. However, the Shenzhou 12 manned spacecraft successfully deploys the solar wing. It means that the “future” of the spacecraft’s power supply system is bright, and it is naturally worthy of applause in return. After the spacecraft successfully entered the scheduled orbit, Director Zhang Zhifen of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center announced the successful launch of the Shenzhou 12 manned flight mission, which also raised the enthusiasm of the staff and the audience to a new climax. Affirmation and pride in my work. Text/Zhang Xuesong Original title: There are many kinds of passwords for the launch of Shenzhou 12 Source: China Aerospace News [责任编辑: ]